The 12th century was the Golden Age of Islam, especially in Islamic Spain, and Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent took place at the end of the century. Henry I was king of England at the beginning of the 12th century and ruled from August 5, 1100, to December 1135, was followed by Stephen from 1135 to 1154, and then Henry II ruled from 1154 to 1189 when Richard I was crowned King of England on September 3, 1189. Genghis Khan was born in Mongolia in 1162.
The Normans invaded Ireland in 1169, and Henry II of England landed in Ireland to assert his claim as Lord of Ireland. Thomas Becket was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral on December 29, 1170. Richard the Lionheart of England defeated Saladin at the Battle of Jaffa in 1102.100 years later, Cotton Y-DNA mutated to become R-BY94813 and settled in Derbyshire around Uttoxeter between Stoke-on-Trent and Derby. Finally, 250 years later about 1,450 CE, Cotton Y DNA formed a unique haplotype R-B17725. As shown below, Cotton DNA falls under the haplotype BY2574 with a number of Singletons. The 13th century saw the rise of Genghis Khan who created the largest contiguous empire in history and in 1299 the Ottoman Empire was established by Osman I. King John of England ruled from 1199 to 1216 and was forced to sign the Magna Carta at Runnymede in 1215. Henry III ruled England from 1216 to 1272 and was followed by Edward I from 1272 to 1307. Cotton DNA belongs to a unique haplotype R-BY17725 with James S. Cotham shown above and mutated from R-BY2574 with several Singletons to R-BY94813 before becoming uniquely R-BY17725. A very possible historical link is discussed below related to Richard de Cottam from Lancashire in the area of Singleton and Cottam. After substantial costly DNA testing, Cotton Y (male line) DNA is pure Celt and descends from the Irish O’Byrne Clan, whose origins derive from the King of Leinster, Braen mac Máelmórda, who was King of Leinster from around 1016 until he lost the kingship in 1018 after being blinded by his cousin the King of Dublin Sitric Silkenbeard son of Amlaib. Bran then retired to Cologne, probably to the Benedictine monastery of Great St Martin, which was run by Irish monks at the time. The Annals of Ulster record in 1052 that “Braen son of Mael Mórda, king of Laigin, died in Cologne”. After Braen mac Máelmórda was deposed in 1018, Cotton DNA traveled across the Irish Sea to the Wirral Peninsula about the year 1050. Detailed DNA testing discovered that John Cotton’s surname origins date back to Richard de Cottam, who lived about 1204 in Singleton, Lancashire. Richard was the son of Robert de Singleton, who owned land in the village of Cotham. His son, Richard, changed his surname to conform with where he owned land, i.e. Robert de Singleton and Richard de Cottam. As a result, John Cotton’s surname evolved from Singleton. The diagram below shows the unique haplogroup containing Singleton & Cotton surnames. Members of Family 11 of the Cotton DNA Project include the surnames COTTON, COTTAM, and COTHAM. Detailed DNA testing discovered that John Cotton’s surname origins date back to Richard de Cottam, who lived about 1204 in Singleton, Lancashire. Richard was the son of Robert de Singleton, who owned land in the village of Cotham. His son, Richard, changed his surname to conform with where he owned land, i.e. Robert de Singleton and Richard de Cottam. As a result, John Cotton’s surname evolved from Singleton. The diagram below shows the unique haplogroup containing Singleton & Cotton surnames. Members of Family 11 of the Cotton DNA Project include the surnames COTTON, COTTAM, and COTHAM.
- Huck (Ecke) de Singleton (born circa 1125)
- Ughtred (Uctred) de Singleton (born circa 1153)
- Robert de Singleton (born circa 1180)
- Richard de Cottam (born circa 1204) Richard, son of Robert, owned land in the village of Cottam and thus changed his surname to conform to the common practice “of being from a place” i.e. Robert de Singleton and Richard de Cottam. (Pipe Roll, No. 71, m.I.) From the Cockersand Chartulary, it appears that Richard de Cottam was sthe on of Robert, son of Ughtred, who was the brother of Richard de Singleton (1180-1212)
- Richard de Cottam (son of Richard, born circa 1230) “Writ dated at Westminster, June 10th, 21st year of Edward I (1293), directed to the sheriff of Lancaster and his coroners, reciting the same terms as the previous writ (No. LXXI) the petition of the venerable father R. Bishop of Coventre and Lichfield respecting the lands and chattels of Richard de Cotton, clerk, which had been taken into the King’s hands owing to a charge against the said Richard, of the death of William le pauper, and directing the sherif to make inquiry as to the said Richard’s conversation and reputation….. By the oath of 12 free and liegemen of the neighborhood of Amundernesse, who say that Richard de Cotton is of good and honest conversation and of good report nor was he ever a public or notorious malefactor except for the death of William le Paumere of which he was accused (arectatus) before the Justices in the last eyre at Lancaster, of which he afterwards solely vindicated (expurgavit) his innocence.”